Cancer Immunotherapy involves antibodies to inhibit immune checkpoint molecules. Warding off cancer with immunotherapy has revolutionized treatment for some patients and therapies aiming at the immune checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 in melanoma, renal cancer, Hodgkin's diseases, and lung cancer.
TIM-3 is a co-inhibitory receptor, which is expressed on IFN-γ-producing T cells, FoxP3+ Treg cells, and innate immune cells (macrophages and dendritic cells), where it has been displayed to lower their responses upon interaction with their ligand(s).
TIM-3 has received prominence as a potential candidate for cancer immunotherapy, where it has been displayed that in vivo blockade of TIM-3 with other checkpoint inhibitors improves anti-tumor immunity and decreases tumor growth in various preclinical tumor models.
TIM-3, as a negative regulatory immune checkpoint, is detected in distinct types of immune cells, including T cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs), dendritic cells (DCs), B cells, macrophages, nature killer (NK) cells, and mast cells. TIM-3 is a type I membrane protein and consists of 281 amino acids. It comprises an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, and a C- terminal cytoplasmic tail.
TIM-3 has four ligands, including galectin-9 (Gal-9), carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM-1), high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), and phosphatidylserine (PS). Gal-9 was the first to be identified. It is a carbohydrate-binding protein, specifically recognizing N-linked sugar chains' structure in the TIM-3 immunoglobulin variable (IgV) domain. TIM-3/Gal-9 can inhibit cancer immunity by negatively regulating T-cell immunity. The connection of the TIM-3 IgV domain with Gal-9 can terminate T helper 1 (Th1) immune responses.
TIM-3-Next Generation Immunotherapy Market
TIM-3-Next Generation Immunotherapy Market is anticipated to be USD 3,117 Million in the year 2035
TIM-3-Next Generation Immunotherapy Market Driver
Launch of potential upcoming therapies
TIM-3-Next Generation Immunotherapy Emerging Drugs
The emerging drugs of the TIM-3-Next Generation Immunotherapy market are
- BGB-A425 +/– Tislelizumab
And many others.
TIM-3-Next Generation Immunotherapy Key Players
The key players in the TIM-3-Next Generation Immunotherapy market are
- Bristol-Myers Squibb
- Ono Pharmaceuticals
- Incyte Biosciences
- Eli Lilly
And many others.