Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy consists of genetic alteration of patients’ autologous T-cells to express a CAR, particularly for a tumor antigen, followed by ex vivo cell expansion and re-infusion back to the patient. CAR T-cells are the fusion proteins of a particular single-chain fragment variable from a particular monoclonal antibody and one or more T-cell receptor intracellular signaling domains.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of childhood cancer affecting the blood and bone marrow. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is the second most common acute leukemia, with 80% of all the cases, are diagnosed in children. The primary treatment for ALL in adults is typically long-term chemotherapy, which occurs in three phases: induction, consolidation, and maintenance treatment.
Chemotherapy is the primary treatment and uses cytotoxic drugs for the destruction of cancer cells:-
Remission induction therapy: It wipes out the leukemia cells in the blood and bone marrow. However, remission induction typically does not kill all leukemia cells, so further treatment is required to stop the disease from returning.
Consolidation therapy: It is also called post-remission therapy, maintenance therapy, or intensification; this phase of treatment is focused on eradicating the remaining leukemia cells. It is considered vital to declining the risk of relapse.
There are three types of ALL-
- B-cell ALL
- T-cell ALL
- Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL (Ph+ ALL)
CAR T-Cell Therapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Market Size in the 6MM is expected to be USD 1,315.7 Million in 2030
- Advancements in technology
- Increased collaborations and acquisitions
- Competition among biotech and pharma giants
- Adverse events and toxicity concerns
- Regulatory challenges
- High cost and low accessibility
Marketed CAR T-Cell Therapies for ALL
- Kymriah: Novartis
Emerging CAR T-Cell Therapies for ALL
- MB-CART19.1: Miltenyi Biotec B.V. & Co. KG
- PBCAR0191: Precision BioSciences
- AUTO3: Autolus Limited