Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy consists of genetic alteration of patients' autologous T-cells to express a CAR, particularly for a tumor antigen, followed by ex vivo cell expansion and re-infusion back to the patient. CAR T-cells are the fusion proteins of a particular single-chain fragment variable from a particular monoclonal antibody and one or more T-cell receptor intracellular signaling domains.
T-cell genetic modification may occur via viral-based gene transfer methods or non-viral methods, such as DNA-based transposons, CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), or direct transfer of in vitro transcribed-mRNA by electroporation. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) is a type of blood cancer that consists of a heterogeneous group of proliferative malignancies that emerge in the B cells, T cells, or natural killer (NK) cells within the lymphoid tissue, like the lymph nodes, bone marrow, thymus, and spleen.
B-cell lymphomas comprise around 85% of all NHL cases diagnosed in the United States and are blood cancers that arise in the B-cells.
Diffuse large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of NHL, accounting for about To date22% of newly diagnosed cases of B-cell NHL in the United States.
Market Size of CAR T-Cell Therapy for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in the 6MM is anticipated to be USD 2796.2 Million in 2030.
- Advancements in technology
- Increased collaborations and acquisitions
- Competition among biotech and pharma giants
- Adverse events and toxicity concerns
- Regulatory challenges
- High cost and low accessibility
The US Food and Drug Administration, to date, has approved two forms of CAR T cell therapy for patients with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. The City of Hope is one of the only institutions in the United States to offer both FDA-approved commercial products, Yescarta (axicabtagene ciloleucel) and Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel).
Marketed CAR T-Cell Therapies for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
- Kymriah by Novartis
- YESCARTA by Kite Pharma (Gilead Sciences)
Emerging CAR T-Cell Therapies for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
- KTE-X19 by Gilead Sciences
- JCAR017 by Celgene Corporation (a BMS company)