Cancer immunotherapy which is known to reactivate weakened immune cells of cancer patients, has yielded a great success in recent years. Promising antitumor effects have been demonstrated in several different solid and hematological malignancies by the introduction of PD-1/PDL-1 blockade therapy. There is a growing concern about whether they are comparable as the use of PD-1/PDL-1 inhibitors is increasing in number for the clinical treatment of cancer. The sophisticated tumor immune microenvironment makes it difficult to utterly suppress the inhibitory microenvironment by a single-agent therapy. Therefore, the combinational strategies have benefited in terms of both reducing toxicities and increasing efficacy. Taken together, the future landscape of these combination strategies seems to be very promising. Monoclonal antibodies are majorly used as PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors but their applications are limited due to the immune-related adverse events and poor bioavailability. Moreover, small molecules inhibitors against PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoints have shown promising blockage effects on PD-1/PD-L1 interactions. However, there is still vast research that needs to be undertaken to rightfully select the most appropriate cancers which deserve to be treated with PD-1/PDL-1 blockers as immunotherapy.
Through PD-1/PDL-1 inhibitors whitepaper, DelveInsight will draw your attention towards the current picture of PD-1/PDL-1 along with its drawbacks and superiority over the conventional cancer therapies. The whitepaper summarizes the PD-1/PDL-1 inhibitors in clinical use, and the emerging pharma companies investigating novel PD-1 and PDL-1 inhibitors. This paper also highlights monoclonal antibodies, small molecules and peptides as inhibitors of the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction, mechanisms underlying the resistance to PD-1/PDL-1 blockade and also the important factors that could improve the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapy. In addition, the paper also underlines the spectrum of combination therapies. Through this whitepaper, the reader can get an ongoing scenario of PD-1/PDL-1 inhibitors, the novel strategies in the clinic, combination of PD-1/PDL-1 blockade with other strategies and the future of PD-1/PDL-1.