Giant Cell Arteritis Market Insights

DelveInsight’s ‘Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) - Market Insights, Epidemiology, and Market Forecast—2030’ report delivers an in-depth understanding of the Giant Cell Arteritis, historical and forecasted epidemiology as well as the Giant Cell Arteritis market trends in the United States, EU5 (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom), and Japan.

 

The Giant Cell Arteritis market report provides current treatment practices, emerging drugs, Giant Cell Arteritis market share of the individual therapies, current and forecasted Giant Cell Arteritis market size from 2018 to 2030 segmented by seven major markets. The Report also covers current Giant Cell Arteritis treatment practice/algorithm, market drivers, market barriers, and unmet medical needs to curate the best of the opportunities and assesses the underlying potential of the market.

Geography Covered

  • The United States
  • EU5 (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom)
  • Japan

Study Period: 2018–2030

Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA): Disease Understanding and Treatment Algorithm

Giant Cell Arteritis Overview

Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown etiology that occurs in older persons and can result in a wide variety of systemic, neurologic, and ophthalmologic complications. GCA is one of the most common forms of systemic vasculitis in adults. Other names of GCA include arteritis cranialis, Horton disease, granulomatous arteritis, and arteritis of the aged. The term “Giant cell Arteritis” is often used because when one looks at biopsies of the inflamed temporal arteries under a microscope, one often sees large or “giant” cells.

 

GCA is classified as a large-vessel vasculitis but also involves medium and small arteritis, particularly the superficial temporal arteritis- hence it is termed as temporal arteritis. Along with this, GCA most commonly affects the ophthalmic, occipital, vertebral, posterior ciliary, and proximal vertebral arteries. Medium- and large-sized vessels that may be involved include the aorta and the carotid, subclavian, and iliac arteries.

 

Among the inflammatory rheumatic disorders of the elderly, polymyalgia rheumatic is second only to rheumatoid arthritis in frequency. This non-specific clinical syndrome is characterized by bilateral aching and morning stiffness in the torso and proximal limbs and high Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR). PMR has no specific diagnostic biomarker but a low dose of prednisone, usually within a week, helps confirm the diagnosis. In a Scandinavian series, the frequency of polymyalgia rheumatica in patients with GCA was high enough to suggest that these two diseases might be the same. Although, clinical arteritis never develops in most patients with polymyalgia rheumatic.

 

Giant Cell Arteritis Diagnosis

While a clinical presentation of headache, jaw claudication, scalp tenderness, fever and other systemic symptoms and serum markers are together highly suggestive of the disease, diagnosis can be challenging in those cases in which classic symptoms are lacking. No one test can confirm the presence of GCA. To help the doctor reach a diagnosis, the doctor will observe the symptoms and note down the medical history of the patients. The doctors can also conduct a physical examination, partly focusing on the arteries in the temples and if the patient has GCA, the arteries may feel hard or tender.

 

Then the patients are required to go through some testing procedures. Typically, if a doctor suspects the GCA, the first tests ordered are blood tests looking for inflammation. These may include Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) blood tests; high levels of either signify inflammation suggesting GCA. Imaging tests may also help pinpoint GCA as well. A specialized ultrasound can be performed in some medical centers to evaluate for inflammation of temporal arteries and the large arteries in the upper chest. Other types of imaging studies may also be performed if the doctor suspects inflammation in the aorta (in the chest) or its branches in the chest and upper extremities. While blood tests and imaging are helpful, there is one test often prized above all others. The Gold-standard test for GCA has traditionally been a temporal artery biopsy showing active inflammation of the temporal artery.

 

Giant Cell Arteritis Treatment

The main goal of the treatment of GCA is to prevent the patients from getting exposed to severe consequences of the disease such as blindness. The main treatment for GCA consists of a high dose of a corticosteroid drug such as prednisone, and immediate treatment is necessary to prevent the patient from vision loss or a stroke. The doctor is most likely to start the medication even before confirming the diagnosis with a biopsy.

 

Steroids are the first line of treatment to get GCA under control and prevent any serious complications and currently, there isn’t an alternative first-line of treatment is available. Steroid tablets slow down the activity of the immune system and reduce the inflammation in blood vessels.

 

Alternative treatments may also include conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), including: Methotrexate, Leflunomide, Azathioprine, Mycophenolate mofetil. These drugs can slow down the immune system, which can be misfiring in people who have autoimmune diseases. There are also some newer drugs available, called biological therapies, these drugs target key cells within the immune system to stop them from causing inflammation. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved one such biological treatment Tocilizumab (Actemra) for the treatment of people with GCA. It can also be prescribed if other treatments haven’t worked.

Giant Cell Arteritis Epidemiology

The Giant Cell Arteritis epidemiology division provides insights about historical and current Giant Cell Arteritis patient pool and forecasted trends for every seven major countries. It helps to recognize the causes of current and forecasted trends by exploring numerous studies and views of key opinion leaders. This part of the DelveInsight report also provides the diagnosed patient pool and their trends along with assumptions undertaken.

 

Key Findings

In the year 2020, the total prevalent cases of Giant Cell Arteritis was 435,887 cases in the 7MM which are expected to grow during the study period, i.e., 2018–2030.

 

The disease epidemiology covered in the report provides historical as well as forecasted Giant Cell Arteritis epidemiology [segmented as Total Prevalent Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis, Total subtype-specific cases of Giant Cell Arteritis, Total Age group-specific Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis, Total Clinical Manifestation-specific Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis, and Total Treated Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis] in the 7MM covering the United States, EU5 countries (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom), and Japan from 2018 to 2030.

Country Wise - Giant Cell Arteritis Epidemiology

  • Estimates show that the highest cases of GCA in the 7MM were in United States, followed by the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Germany, Spain, and Japan in 2020.
  • In the United States, the total number of prevalent cases of Giant Cell Arteritis was 244,438 cases in the year 2020 which are expected to grow during the study period, i.e., 2018–2030.
  • In the year 2020, the total prevalent cases of Giant Cell Arteritis were 190,573 cases in EU-5 which are expected to grow during the study period, i.e., 2018–2030.
  • In Japan, the total number of prevalent cases of Giant Cell Arteritis was 875 cases in the year 2020 which are expected to grow during the study period, i.e., 2018–2030.

Giant Cell Arteritis Drug Chapters

The drug chapter segment of the Giant Cell Arteritis report encloses the detailed analysis of Giant Cell Arteritis marketed drugs and late stage (Phase-III and Phase-II) pipeline drugs. It also helps to understand the Giant Cell Arteritis clinical trial details, expressive pharmacological action, agreements and collaborations, approval and patent details, advantages and disadvantages of each included drug, and the latest news and press releases.

 

Giant Cell Arteritis Emerging Drugs

 

Rinvoq (upadacitinib), (Abbvie)

Rinvoq (upadacitinib) is an orally administered selective and reversible JAK inhibitor, pro-inflammatory cytokines use immune signaling networks, such as the JAK-STAT pathway, to communicate with the cell nucleus. When dysregulated, these signals increase the inflammatory response, leading to cycles of chronic inflammation, presenting as pain, swelling, and progressive joint destruction. It is approved in the United States, Japan and the European Union. Rinvoq is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis in adult patients who have responded inadequately to, or who are intolerant to one or more disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), is being developed by Abbvie. Currently, upadacitinib is in the Phase III stage of clinical development for the Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA).

 

Cosentyx (secukinumab), (Novartis Pharmaceuticals)

Cosentyx (secukinumab) is an injectable fully human monoclonal antibody that specifically inhibits interleukin-17A (IL-17A), a cytokine involved in several immunological diseases, is being developed by Novartis Pharmaceuticals. Secukinumab is a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to the interleukin-17A (IL-17A) cytokine and inhibits its interaction with the IL-17 receptor. IL-17A is a naturally occurring cytokine that is involved in normal inflammatory and immune responses. Secukinumab inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The company has completed one Phase II study, and it is currently in the Phase III stage of clinical development for the treatment of Giant Cell Arteritis.

 

KPL-301 (mavrilimumab), (CSL/Kiniksa Pharmaceuticals)

KPL-301 is a subcutaneous fully-human monoclonal antibody that antagonizes GM-CSF signaling by binding to the alpha subunit of the GM-CSF receptor is being developed by CSL and Kiniksa Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of Giant cell arteritis (GCA), a chronic inflammatory disease of medium-large blood vessel. KPL-301 is designed to targets granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor alpha (GM-CSFRα) and inhibits the signaling of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Currently Kiniksa Pharmaceuticals is also evaluating mavrilimumab for the potential treatment of severe coronavirus 2019 disease, or COVID-19, pneumonia and hyper inflammation. Kiniksa Pharmaceuticals has completed Phase II, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study to test the efficacy and safety of KPL-301 in Giant Cell Arteritis, the trial has enrolled 70 participants.

 

Tremfya (guselkumab), (Johnson & Johnson/MorphoSys AG)

Tremfya (guselkumab) is an Intravenous and Subcutaneous administered monoclonal antibody that selectively targets IL-23 and is the first-in-class selective IL-23 inhibitor. IL-23 is a naturally occurring cytokine that is involved in normal inflammatory and immune responses, approved to treat moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, and is being developed by Johnson & Johnson utilizing MorphoSys's HuCAL (Human Combinatorial Antibody Library) technology. Tremfya is currently in the Phase II stage of clinical development for the Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA). The study (NCT04633447) has been initiated and started recruiting participants.

Note: Detailed emerging therapies assessment will be provided in the final report.

Giant Cell Arteritis Market Outlook

Several factors which are understood till now may include genetic factors (HLA family), infectious or environmental factors, immune responses, and T-cell activation. The symptoms mainly include constitutional symptoms (weight loss, fever, fatigue, anorexia, and malaise), headache, jaw claudication, visual symptoms, polymyalgia rheumatica, neurological symptoms, respiratory symptoms, and extracranial symptoms. Giant cell arteritis involves some serious complications if not treated early can also hamper a patient’s quality of life. Some serious complications may involve blindness, aortic aneurysm, ischemic stroke, heart attack, and peripheral artery disease.

 

The main goal of the treatment of GCA is to prevent the patients from getting exposed to severe consequences of the disease such as blindness. The main treatment of the disease includes the use of high-dose of corticosteroid drugs such as prednisolone. Immediate diagnosis and treatment of GCA are required to prevent the patients from vision loss or stroke. Over time, steroids are considered as the first-line of treatment to get GCA under control and other than that, there isn’t any alternative first-line treatment of GCA is available. Actemra/RoActemra (Tocilizumab) is a first-in-class humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, which is being used with great efficacy and safety in GCA. An interleukin-6 is a key cytokine in GCA. Tocilizumab is the first agent to be approved by the FDA for the treatment of giant cell arteritis. 

 

To treat GCA, doctors may prescribe a high dose of corticosteroids between 40 mg and 60 mg every day and is continued for around 3-4 weeks. If the patient’s condition starts to improve after that, the doctor will start reducing the dose. Although, there has always been a continuous discussion on the safety profile of corticosteroids. Corticosteroids if taken for a longer duration can cause some serious side effects which can be unavoidable such as osteoporosis, muscle weakness, cataracts, glaucoma, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Because of these side effects, it is important to have any other alternative and much safer treatment option. These side effects of corticosteroids are also the reason why tocilizumab is being used and other drugs are being tested in clinical trials to reduce their toxicity.

 

Other than corticosteroids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are also used sometimes to treat GCA. DMARDs that are commonly used are Methotrexate, leflunomide, and azathioprine. As a result of the need for alternatives to glucocorticoids for the treatment of GCA, multiple disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biologic agents have been investigated. Methotrexate was shown to have limited efficacy, as a meta-analysis of 3 randomized control trials evaluating its efficacy as a steroid-sparing agent showed that, although there was a reduction in cumulative steroid dose, there was no reduction in adverse events. Azathioprine appears to have minimal to no steroid-sparing effects. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors were shown to be ineffective as steroid-sparing agents.

 

However, there is a high unmet need prevailing the current therapies for the treatment of GCA. Although, Tocilizumab is effective and safe it has been observed that the CRP levels in the human body drop as soon as the treatment with tocilizumab is started. This drop in the levels of CRP in the body may lead to misinterpretation of laboratory results. C-reactive protein is an important marker in the human body for inflammation, if its level decreases then there will be difficulty in checking the disease activity. 

 

In short, efficacious pharmacologic options for managing the most prevalent and most disabling phases of GCA are extremely limited. Treatments that work in this disorder are especially rare, therefore, new treatments are desperately needed.

 

Key Findings

The Giant Cell Arteritis total market size in the 7MM is expected to to rise by 2030 with a CAGR of 27.1% during the study period (2018–2030). According to the estimates, the highest market size of Giant Cell Arteritis found in the United States.

 

The United States Market Outlook

The total market size of Giant Cell Arteritis in the United States is expected to increase with a CAGR of 27.6% in the study period (2018–2030).

 

EU-5 Countries: Market Outlook

The total market size of Giant Cell Arteritis in EU-5 countries is expected to increase with a CAGR of 25.6% in the study period (2018–2030).

 

Japan Market Outlook

The total market size of Giant Cell Arteritis in Japan is expected to increase with a CAGR of 28.8% in the study period (2018–2030).

Giant Cell Arteritis Pipeline Development Activities 

The drugs which are in pipeline include: 

  • Rinvoq (upadacitinib), (Abbvie)
  • Cosentyx (secukinumab), (Novartis Pharmaceuticals)
  • KPL-301 (mavrilimumab), (CSL/Kiniksa Pharmaceuticals)
  • Tremfya (guselkumab), (Johnson & Johnson/MorphoSys AG)

Note: Detailed emerging therapies assessment will be provided in the final report.

Analyst Commentary

  • Increase in the geriatric population play an important role in the development and exacerbation of Giant Cell Arteritis therapeutics market. Due to the growing pace of the elder population, the market of Giant Cell Arteritis is expected to increase in the forecast period.
  • Despite having lots of diagnosis options there are high chances of patients getting delay in diagnosis for Giant Cell Arteritis can be observed and the possible hurdles might be the lack of proper understanding of the disease (Giant Cell Arteritis).
  • Among the emerging therapies, Abbvie’s Rinvoq (upadacitinib), Novartis Pharmaceuticals’s Cosentyx (secukinumab), and CSL/Kiniksa Pharmaceutical’s KPL-301 (mavrilimumab) appears to be the only drugs which have the potential to transform the Giant Cell Arteritis market owing to impressive clinical data.
  • Access and Reimbursement Scenario in Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) Therapies
  • GCA is very rare in people younger than 50 years of age. It’s more common in women than men, and more common in people of North European descent than in people of other races. GCA is often linked to a condition called polymyalgia rheumatic (PMR), which causes pain and stiffness of the muscles, particularly in the shoulders, neck, hips, and thighs. Rarely, if someone has had GCA or PMR for a long time, they may develop aneurysms. This is when artery walls increase in size and can bulge and become weak 
  • Until 2017, treatment of GCA was mostly limited to high-dose corticosteroids such as prednisone, which can bring dramatic relief of headache and other GCA symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can cause serious side effects, and patients usually need to stay on high doses for at least a month, with most remaining on a lower dose up to two years or more.
  • In 2017, the FDA approved the use of the biologic drug tocilizumab (Actemra) to treat adults with GCA, signaling the first drug approved to treat this disease in more than 50 years. Biologic medications are complex proteins derived from living organisms. They target certain parts of the immune system to control inflammation. Tocilizumab targets an inflammation protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), which is known to be involved in the disease GCA
  • The main treatment for GCA consists of high doses of a corticosteroid drug such as prednisone. Because immediate treatment is necessary to prevent vision loss, a doctor is likely to start medication even before confirming the diagnosis with a biopsy. In 2017, the armamentarium for giant cell arteritis was broadened when the US FDA granted an expanded approval of the humanized antihuman interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab for the treatment of GCA.
  • Currently, tocilizumab is only reimbursed for the treatment of COVID 19 in the 7MM for which the drug was given an emergency approval. Therefore, tocilizumab is not reimbursed for the treatment of GCA. In general, Medicare prescription drug plans (Part D) or any other government agency, such as UK’s The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA), French High Authority for Health (HAS) do not cover this drug.

Note: Detailed HTA assessment will be provided in the final report.

KOL-Views

To keep up with current market trends, we take KOLs and SME’s opinion working in the Giant Cell Arteritis domain through primary research to fill the data gaps and validate our secondary research. Their opinion helps to understand and validate current and emerging therapies treatment patterns or Giant Cell Arteritis market trends. This will support the clients in potential upcoming novel treatment by identifying the overall scenario of the market and the unmet needs. 

Competitive Intelligence Analysis 

We perform Competitive and Market Intelligence analysis of the Giant Cell Arteritis Market by using various Competitive Intelligence tools that includes – SWOT analysis, PESTLE analysis, Porter’s five forces, BCG Matrix, Market entry strategies, etc. The inclusion of the analysis entirely depends upon the data availability. 

Scope of the Report

  • The report covers the descriptive overview of Giant Cell Arteritis, explaining its causes, signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, and currently available therapies.
  • Comprehensive insight has been provided into the Giant Cell Arteritis epidemiology and treatment in the 7MM.
  • Additionally, an all-inclusive account of both the current and emerging therapies for Giant Cell Arteritis is provided, along with the assessment of new therapies, which will have an impact on the current treatment landscape.
  • A detailed review of the Giant Cell Arteritis market; historical and forecasted is included in the report, covering drug outreach in the 7MM.
  • The report provides an edge while developing business strategies, by understanding trends shaping and driving the global Giant Cell Arteritis market.

Report Highlights

  • In the coming years, the Giant Cell Arteritis market is set to change due to the upcoming therapies with novel route of administrations which are under investigation and ongoing research in the Giant Cell Arteritis; which would expand the size of the market to enable the drug manufacturers to penetrate more into the market.
  • The companies and academics are working to assess challenges and seek opportunities that could influence Giant Cell Arteritis R&D. The therapies under development are focused on novel approaches to treat/improve the disease condition.
  • Major players are involved in developing therapies for Giant Cell Arteritis. The launch of emerging therapies will significantly impact the Giant Cell Arteritis market.
  • A better understanding of disease pathogenesis will also contribute to the development of novel therapeutics for Giant Cell Arteritis.
  • Our in-depth analysis of the pipeline assets across different stages of development (Phase III and Phase II), different emerging trends, and comparative analysis of pipeline products with detailed clinical profiles, key cross-competition, launch date along with product development activities will support the clients in the decision-making process regarding their therapeutic portfolio by identifying the overall scenario of the research and development activities.

Giant Cell Arteritis Report Insights

  • Patient Population
  • Therapeutic Approaches
  • Giant Cell Arteritis Pipeline Analysis
  • Giant Cell Arteritis Market Size and Trends
  • Market Opportunities
  • Impact of upcoming Therapies

Giant Cell Arteritis Report Key Strengths

  • 10 Years Forecast
  • 7MM Coverage 
  • Giant Cell Arteritis Epidemiology Segmentation
  • Key Cross Competition 
  • Highly Analyzed Market
  • Drugs Uptake

Giant Cell Arteritis Report Assessment

  • SWOT Analysis
  • Current Treatment Practices
  • Unmet Needs
  • Pipeline Product Profiles
  • Conjoint Analysis
  • Market Attractiveness
  • Market Drivers and Barriers

Key Questions

Market Insights:

  • What was the Giant Cell Arteritis Market share (%) distribution in 2018 and how it would look like in 2030?
  • What would be the Giant Cell Arteritis total market size as well as market size by therapies across the 7MM during the study period (2018–2030)?
  • What are the key findings of the market across the 7MM and which country will have the largest Giant Cell Arteritis market size during the study period (2018–2030)?
  • At what CAGR, the Giant Cell Arteritis market is expected to grow in the 7MM during the study period (2018–2030)?
  • What would be the Giant Cell Arteritis market outlook across the 7MM during the study period (2018–2030)?
  • What would be the Giant Cell Arteritis market growth till 2030 and what will be the resultant market size in the year 2030?
  • How would the market drivers, barriers, and future opportunities affect the market dynamics and subsequent analysis of the associated trends?
  • Giant Cell Arteritis patient types/pool where unmet need is more and whether emerging therapies will be able to address the residual unmet need?
  • How emerging therapies are performing on the parameters like efficacy, safety, route of administration (RoA), treatment duration, and frequencies based on their clinical trial results?
  • Among the emerging therapies, what are the potential therapies which are expected to disrupt the Giant Cell Arteritis market?

 

Epidemiology Insights:

  • What are the disease risks, burdens, and unmet needs of the Giant Cell Arteritis?
  • What is the historical Giant Cell Arteritis patient pool in the seven major markets covering the United States, EU5 (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom), and Japan?
  • What would be the forecasted patient pool of Giant Cell Arteritis in the 7 major markets covering the United States, EU5 (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom), and Japan?
  • What will be the growth opportunities in the 7MM concerning the patient population about Giant Cell Arteritis?
  • Out of all the 7MM countries, which country would have the highest prevalent population of Giant Cell Arteritis during the study period (2018–2030)?
  • At what CAGR the population is expected to grow in the 7MM during the study period (2018–2030)?
  • What are the various recent and upcoming events which are expected to improve the diagnosis of Giant Cell Arteritis?

 

Current Treatment Scenario and Emerging Therapies:

  • What are the current options for the treatment of Giant Cell Arteritis?
  • What are the current treatment guidelines for the treatment of Giant Cell Arteritis in the US, Europe, and Japan?
  • How many companies are developing therapies for the treatment of Giant Cell Arteritis?
  • How many therapies are developed by each company for the treatment of Giant Cell Arteritis?
  • How many emerging therapies are in the mid-stage and late stages of development for the treatment of Giant Cell Arteritis?
  • What are the key collaborations (Industry–Industry, Industry-Academia), Mergers and acquisitions, licensing activities related to the Giant Cell Arteritis therapies? 
  • What are the recent novel therapies, targets, mechanisms of action, and technologies developed to overcome the limitation of existing therapies? 
  • What are the clinical studies going on for Giant Cell Arteritis and their status?
  • What are the key designations that have been granted for the emerging therapies for Giant Cell Arteritis?
  • What is the global historical and forecasted market of Giant Cell Arteritis?

Reasons to buy

  • The report will help in developing business strategies by understanding trends shaping and driving the Giant Cell Arteritis market.
  • To understand the future market competition in the Giant Cell Arteritis market and Insightful review of the key market drivers and barriers.
  • Organize sales and marketing efforts by identifying the best opportunities for Giant Cell Arteritis in the US, Europe (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom), and Japan.
  • Identification of strong upcoming players in the market will help in devising strategies that will help in getting ahead of competitors.
  • Organize sales and marketing efforts by identifying the best opportunities for the Giant Cell Arteritis market.
  • To understand the future market competition in the Giant Cell Arteritis market.

1. Key Insights

2. Report Introduction

3. Giant Cell Arteritis Disease Market Overview at a Glance

3.1. Market Share (%) Distribution of Giant Cell Arteritis in 2018

3.2. Market Share (%) Distribution of Giant Cell Arteritis in 2030

4. Executive Summary of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)

4.1. Key Events

5. Epidemiology and Market Methodology

6. Disease Background and Overview

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Causes of GCA

6.3. Signs and symptoms of GCA

6.4. Complications of GCA

6.5. Clinical Manifestations of GCA

6.6. Pathophysiology of GCA

6.7. Pathogenesis of GCA

7. Diagnosis of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)

7.1. Diagnostic Algorithm

7.1.1. Journal of Medical Case Reports diagnostic algorithm

7.2. Diagnostic Criteria

7.3. Diagnosis Tests

7.3.1. Physical Examination

7.3.2. Blood Tests

7.3.3. Imaging Tests

7.3.4. Temporal artery biopsy (TAB)

7.4. Differential Diagnosis

8. Diagnostic guidelines

8.1. American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic guidelines for GCA

8.2. European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) guidelines for the diagnosis of GCA

8.3. The British Society for Rheumatology (BSR) and British Health Professionals in Rheumatology (BHPR) diagnostic guidelines for GCA

8.4. The French Study Group for Larger vessel vasculitis (GEFA) recommendations for diagnosis of GCA

9. Treatment of GCA

9.1. Treatment Algorithm of GCA

9.2. Corticosteroids

9.3. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)

9.3.1. Methotrexate (MTX)

9.3.2. Leflunomide

9.3.3. Azathioprine

10. Treatment Guidelines

10.1. American college of rheumatology treatment guidelines for the management of GCA

10.2. European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) guidelines for the management of GCA

10.3. The British Society for Rheumatology (BSR) and British Health Professionals in Rheumatology (BHPR) treatment guidelines for GCA

10.4. The French Study Group for Larger vessel vasculitis (GEFA) recommendations for management of GCA

11. Epidemiology and Patient Population

11.1. Key Findings

11.2. Epidemiology of Giant Cell Arteritis

11.3. Epidemiology Scenario

11.3.1. Total Prevalent Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis

11.3.2. Total Subtype-specific Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis

11.3.3. Total Age group-specific Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis

11.3.4. Total Clinical Manifestation-specific Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis

11.3.5. Total Treated Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis

12. Patient Journey of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)

13. Key Endpoints in Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) Clinical Trials

14. Marketed Therapies

14.1. Actemra / RoActemra (Tocilizumab): Roche Holding

14.1.1. Drug Description

14.1.2. Regulatory Milestones

14.1.3. Other Developmental Activities

14.1.4. Pivotal Clinical Trial

14.1.5. Ongoing Current Pipeline Activity

15. Emerging Therapies

15.1. Rinvoq (upadacitinib): AbbVie

15.1.1. Drug Description

15.1.2. Other Developmental Activities

15.1.3. Clinical Development

15.2. Cosentyx (secukinumab): Novartis Pharmaceuticals

15.2.1. Drug Description

15.2.2. Other Developmental Activities

15.2.3. Clinical Development

15.2.4. Safety and Efficacy

15.3. KPL-301 (mavrilimumab): CSL/Kiniksa Pharmaceuticals

15.3.1. Drug Description

15.3.2. Other Developmental Activities

15.3.3. Clinical Development

15.3.4. Safety and Efficacy

15.4. Tremfya (guselkumab): Johnson & Johnson/MorphoSys AG

15.4.1. Drug Description

15.4.2. Other Developmental Activities

15.4.3. Clinical Development

16. Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA): 7 Major Market Analysis

16.1. Key Findings

17. Market Outlook

17.1. Market Size of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)

17.1.1. Total Market Size of GCA

17.1.2. Market Size of Giant Cell Arteritis by Therapies

18. Market Access and Reimbursement

18.1. Key HTA decisions for Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)

18.2. Reimbursement

18.3. Patient Access Programs

19. KOL Views

20. Market Drivers

21. Market Barriers

22. SWOT Analysis

23. Unmet Needs

24. Appendix

24.1. Bibliography

24.2. Report Methodology

25. DelveInsight Capabilities

26. Disclaimer

27. About DelveInsight

List of Table

Table 1: Summary of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), Market, Epidemiology, and Key Events (2018-2030)

Table 2: Revised ACR criteria (rACR) for diagnosis of GCA

Table 3: Recommendations for diagnostic testing in GCA

Table 4: Recommendations concerning GCA diagnosis

Table 5: Recommendations/statements for treatment (medical management and surgical intervention) and clinical/laboratory monitoring in GCA

Table 6: Recommendations concerning GCA management

Table 7: Total Prevalent Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis (2018-2030)

Table 8: Total Subtype-specific Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis (2018-2030)

Table 9: Total Age group-specific Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis (2018-2030)

Table 10: Total Clinical Manifestation-specific Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis (2018-2030)

Table 11: Total Treated Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis (2018-2030)

Table 12: Actemra/RoActemra (tocilizumab), Clinical Trial Description, 2021

Table 13: Rinvoq (upadacitinib), Clinical Trial Description, 2021

Table 14: Secukinumab (KPL-301), Clinical Trial Description, 2021

Table 15: KPL-301 (mavrilimumab), 2021

Table 16: Tremfya (Guselkumab): 2021

Table 17: 7MM Market Size of Giant Cell Arteritis in USD Million (2018-2030)

Table 18: 7MM Market Size of Giant Cell Arteritis by Therapies in USD Million (2018-2030)

Table 19: Key HTA Decisions

List of Figures

Figure 1: Epidemiology and Market Methodology

Figure 2: Profile of head showing the GCA in the human body

Figure 3: Brief description of Giant Cell Arteritis

Figure 4: Causes of GCA

Figure 5: Symptoms of GCA

Figure 6: Complication of GCA

Figure 7: Clinical Manifestations involved in GCA

Figure 8: Pathophysiology of GCA

Figure 9: Diagnostic algorithm for evaluation of suspected GCA

Figure 10: Diagnostic tests involved in GCA

Figure 11: Preoperative appearance of a patient with a prominent left superficial temporal artery

Figure 12: "Halo-sign" on temporal and axillary arteries

Figure 13: Cranial involvement pattern

Figure 14: Sagittal PET (A, B), coronal PET and fused PET/CT (C-F), and axial PET (G-I)

Figure 15: Showing the temporal artery for biopsy

Figure 16: Figure showing picture of biopsy in a patient

Figure 17: Treatment Algorithm of Giant Cell Arteritis

Figure 18: Total Prevalent Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis in the 7MM (2018-2030)

Figure 19: Total Subtype-specific Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis in the 7MM (2018-2030)

Figure 20: Total Age group-specific Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis in the 7MM (2018-2030)

Figure 21: Total Clinical Manifestation-specific Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis in the 7MM (2018-2030)

Figure 22: Total Treated Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis in the 7MM (2018-2030)

Figure 23: Market Size of Giant Cell Arteritis in the 7MM, USD Million (2018-2030)

Figure 24: 7MM Market Size of Giant Cell Arteritis by Therapies in USD Million (2018-2030)

Roche Holding
AbbVie
Novartis Pharmaceuticals
CSL/Kiniksa Pharmaceuticals
Johnson & Johnson/MorphoSys AG

 

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