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Bone tumors are uncommon in adults, however, are a frequent cause of neoplastic diseases among children and the younger population. Primary malignant bone tumors account for approximately 6% of all childhood malignancies with Ewing’s sarcomas as the second most frequently occurring primary malignant bone tumors in children and adolescents after Osteosarcoma.
What is Ewing sarcoma?
Ewing sarcoma is a highly aggressive, malignant bone tumor that occurs in the bones of the pelvis, femur, tibia, ribs, soft tissues of the thoracic wall, gluteal muscle, pleural cavities and cervical muscles.
What are the signs and symptoms of Ewing sarcoma?
Patients suffering from Ewing sarcoma may complain of the following symptoms or signs:
- Swelling in the bone and surrounding tissues
- Stiffness in the area
- Pain in the bone and surrounding area
- Appearance of a warm and soft lump at the origin
- Weak bones leading to fracture
How is Ewing Sarcoma diagnosed?
Diagnosis of cancer varies with the type of tumor suspected. The diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma comprises physical examination studying signs and symptoms, patient history, family history and blood samples of the patients. Imaging tests such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), CT Scan, Positron Emission tomography scan (PET), Bone Scan, CT Scan help find the size and locations of the tumor. Surgical tests including Biopsy and Bone Marrow Aspiration help in making a definitive diagnosis.
What is the patient pool of Ewing sarcoma?
As per the data by the National Organization for Rare Disorders, the annual Ewing sarcoma incidence is reported to be 3 children per 1,000,000. Further, approximately 200–250 children and youngsters in the US are diagnosed with Ewing’s sarcoma each year.
As per DelveInsight’s epidemiological analysis, the Ewing sarcoma incidence is more or less similar in boys and girls up to age 10. However, at later stages, men are found to be more frequently affected than women.
What is the survival rate of Ewing sarcoma?
According to the American Cancer Society, the overall five-year survival rate for localized Ewing sarcoma is 70%, while patients with metastatic disease have a 15-30% five-year survival rate.
What are the available treatment options in the Ewing sarcoma market?
The treatment regimen for Ewing sarcoma revolves around the size, location and severity of the tumor. Chemotherapy is usually the first step towards the treatment of Ewing sarcoma. Patients are given systemic chemotherapy in conjunction with surgery and/or radiation therapy for local tumor control. Multidrug chemotherapy for Ewing sarcoma includes vincristine, doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and etoposide.
Patients receive chemotherapy before instituting local-control measures. Surgery is the most commonly used form of localized tumor, however, radiation therapy is used as well. Patients who undergo surgery, surgical margins and histologic response are considered in planning postoperative therapy.
In chances of high relapse, high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) as consolidation treatment is given.
What are the unmet needs in the Ewing sarcoma market?
The outcome of patients with metastatic Ewing sarcoma is dismal with a cure rate varying between 20%-40%. The case with recurrent tumor is grimmer. According to research, there is a 70-90% five-year mortality rate in patients with recurring tumors diagnosed with metastatic cancer. The focus is also to reduce toxicities associated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy without compromising with the oncological outcomes.
What are the emerging therapies in the Ewing sarcoma market?
The emerging therapies set to enter the Ewing sarcoma market include Vigil (Gradalis), Eribulin mesylate (Eisai), SM-88 (Tyme), CLR 131 (Cellectar Biosciences), Seclidemstat (Salarius Pharmaceuticals) and several others. The emerging therapeutics in the Ewing sarcoma market landscape focuses on novel targeted therapies as well as immunotherapy.
Key companies at the global level including Tyme, Cellectar Biosciences, Gradalis, Salarius Pharmaceuticals, Oncurious, Eisai, and others are actively working in the Ewing sarcoma market to propel the market size growth.
What are the driving factors behind the Ewing sarcoma market size?
The expected launch of the pipeline therapies, influx of key companies in the market landscape, extensive R&D, increase in healthcare expenditure, better diagnosis modalities and increasing incidence are the major driving factor behind the growth of the Ewing sarcoma market size.